Misc Info

Created Friday 06 May 2016

Wreck-It Ralph


Mentor, helps Ralph learn how to be a hero by embracing his true self

Supporting characters who help Ralph during his journey:
Felix and Sgt Calhouun

Call to Adventure

During the 30rth anniversary of his game, Ralph was not invited and disrespected.
The mayor said he could join them and be respected if he had the medal of a hero.

Ralph does not refuse the call. Medal becomes ultimate boon.

Supernaturall Aid
went to Tapper to ask for advice, bartender directs Ralph to the lost and found.
Drunk soldier tells Ralph he can win a medal in the soldier's game, hero's journey, Ralph steals his armor as a disguise tinto his game

Crossing of the first Threshold

Ralph steps into Hero's Duty, a new arcade game he's never been before
He takes on a new identity as a soldier trying to fight a war

Belly of the Whale
Ralph becomes overwhelmed by the violence in Hero's Duty
His inexperience creates a mess as he tries to dodge the Cy-Bugs
.... (not time to copy)

Road of Trials

Following the game over, he climbes the tower in hero's duty and receives the medal of heros and lands up in another game

He lands in a new game called Sugar Rush and a cy-bug hitched a ride into the game world

Meeting with the Goddess

Ralph is made by Vanellope to create a racing kart when he says he's only capable of destruction
Vanellope loved the kart, which Ralph got confidence from

Woman as Temptress

Was tempted by the King's offer for medal and wrecks Vanellope's kart

Atonement with Father
Ralph learns the truth, makes up for it, reconciles with Felix, begs him to fix the kart and apologises for running away and dooming the game

Ralph breaks Vanellope out of jail and apologises


Sugar Rush is infested by Cy-Bugs Ralph brought into the world
Ralph understood that all the problems were caused by him

He lights up diet cola mountain to destroy the cy-bugs and sacrifices himself
He tangles with King Candy

"I'm bad and that's good. I will never be good and that's not bad. There's no one I'd rather be but me."

Ralph grasps the makeshift Hero Medal Vanellope gave him, andrealizes this was the medal he was looking for

Rescue from Without

Ralph meant to sacrifice himself and did not have any intention of returning. Vanellope, however, rescued him in the nick of time

Crossing of the Return Threshold

Ralph and Felix takes the ship from Hero's Duty back to their homeworld

With ralph back in his world, everything is back to normal.

Freedom to Live

After the journey, Rlaph is greatly respected by many, including Felix and the penthouse citizens

Helps out homeless game characters by letting them into his game

Became best man at Felix's wedding and stays on his game, fulfilling his duty as the villain to keep things in order.


Kingsman (Everyman Hero)

Eggsy as the Hero

Father worked and died for Kingsman, Harry Hart owed his family a favor
A chav who is implied to have turned to petty crime to make a living
Foul mannered, irresponsible, extremely loyal

Used to be a petty criminal
Because he was a criminal at first

Supernatural Aid
Mentor: Harry

Crossing the First Threshold
When he boards a small shuttle and meets the other recruits

Belly of the Whale
Recruits are housed and its flooded, one recruit died

Initiation: Road of Trials

  1. Train a puppy (enhance skills and test limits)
  2. Written test (intelligence)
  3. Jumping from a plan to land on a target (wit)
  4. Sent to acquire woman at a nightclub, lying on the train track (loyalty)
  5. Shoot their dog ("weaknesses")
  6. Arthur's betrayal
  7. Stop Valentine from destroying the world

Woman as Temptress
Eggsy goes back home to confront his stepfather by abusing his new abilities, harry, however, stops Eggsy from hurting his stepfather

Meeting with Goddess
Eggsy witnesses Harry's death at the hand of Valentine. It is then he decides he needed to do something about it, shedding his previous irresponsible and juvenile behaviour

Atonement with the Father

After Harry's death, he finds out Arthur is siding with Valentine. Eggsy switches the cups and poisons Arthur

Decides to stop Valentine. Goes to merlin and roxy for help, infiltrates Valentine's base. In order to do so, he must act the part of the gentleman, and dons a Kingsman tailored suit, shedding his old gangster-like demeanour to become a true Kingsman.

Ultimate Boon
Stop valentine's plan of mass murder, cull the earth's population to "save the world", and avenge Harry's death

Rescue from Without
After they take down one satellite, Eggsy thinks his mission is over and runs back to the jet, when more goons appear and he runs out of ammo, Merlin intervenes and shoots the goons

Master of Two Worlds
Confronts Dean, his step-father and hsi goons with his new skill and imitates his first meeting with Harry to show how far he's come

Freedom to Live
Tells Michelle (his mom) that he has a "new job" at a tailor (Kingsman) and invites her to live with him.



Superhero and Anti-hero

The recruiter is the herald, offering him a cure to his terminal cancer, and also incredible powers

Refusal of the Call

Wade is hesitant, and rejects The Recruiter
After spending time with Vanessa, Wade realized that he wants to live on with her.

Crossing of the First Threshold

Wade travels to the research facility to undergo the procedure
Meets Ajax, Wade's biggest nemesis

Belly of the Whale

Wade is tortured repeatedly, survived but badly disfigured

Road of Trials

Wade goes through various villains and henchmen in order to find Ajax to get the cure for his disfigurement

Meeting with the Goddess

Meeting with AL, provided companionship, gave advice, provided shseler, equipment (wouldnt AL be the mentor)

Atonement with Father

Wade challenged and defeated Ajax, Vanessa was rescued, Ajax gave in and told wade about the cure for his disgurement.

Ultimate Boon does not exist (cure for disfigurement)


Wade was encouraged by Vanessa and accepted his new look

Crossing of the return Threshold

Vanessa's acceptance of Wade brought him to how he was before

Master of two worlds

Freedom to Live

Wade moves back and lives together with Vanessa in peace


Toy Story

Everyman Hero - Woody

Everyman Hero
Favourite toy
Has to mature

Road of Trials
Sid's house is the quest world

Meeting with the Goddess - Sid's cruel behaviour forces woody and buzz to work together (WRONG)

Atonement with Father
Woody trapped in a crate, comes to realization his selfish behaviour resulted in his friends leaving him
Woody reconciles with Buzz afterwards

Ultimate Boon: Woody and Buzz escape Sid's house

Magic Flight: (WRONG)
Buzz and Woody cooperate to catch up to Andy's car

Return: Master of Two Worlds:
Woody is now more mature and now works with Buzz to lead the other toys.

Crossing return threshold


Transformation of Hero

Believable change happens in stages

Traditional Hero:

Anti-Hero: Hoe does he change into someone who believes in himself or in the quest?

Everyman hero: How does he gain skills he needs in order to deal with the quest?

Tragic hero: What struggles does he go through to overcome his tragic flaw?


Two different TYPES of sources


1 example of a story that uses the hero's journey in film, tv or video games, anti-hero, everyman hero, tragic hero, trickster hero



Call To Adventure
Him killing his wife and children.

Supernatural Aid
Oracle at Delphi who directed Hercules to King EurystheusTheseus convinced him not to kill himself after he went mad and murdered his wife and children

The Crossing of the First Threshold
The King Eurystheus tasking him with the twelve labors.

The Road of Trials
The 12 Labors of Hercules

The Meeting with the Goddess
He learns to handle his impulse to kill during a particularly difficult labor (3rd) wherein he was to "bring back alive a stag with horns of gold, sacred to Artemis, which lived in the forests of Cerynitia". He could "kill it easily", but instead had to "hunt it a whole year before he succeeded"

(Unsure about this) He ends up reconciling with Hera and even marrying her daughter Hebe. However, it is stated "it is not easy to imagine him contentedly enjoying rest and peace."

The Ultimate Boon
The boon would be forgiveness for his actions but he never obtains it

Refusal of the Return
He continues a life of adventure

Freedom to Live
He chooses to use his freedom to continue on adventures


Call To Adventure
When he was strong enough to lift the stone and went to seek his father.

Supernatural Aid
Minos' daughter Ariadne told Daedalus how to escape the maze (ball of thread)

The Crossing of the First Threshold
When he offered to be a sacrifice to the Minotaur, with the Minotaur being the threshold guardian.

The Belly of the Whale
When he first fought the Minotaur and had to kill it with his fists.

The Road of Trials
Killed the Minotaur
Defeated the Thebes in war to force them to bury the Argive
Helped Jason obtain the Golden Fleece
Took part in the Calydonian Hunt to help the King of Calydon "kill the terrible boar which was laying waste his country"
Attempted to help his friend Pirithous get Persephone, Queen of the underworld (failed)

The Magic Flight
Most of his adventures

Rescue from Without
Rescued from the Chair of Forgetfulness in the Underworld by Hercules

Master of Two Worlds
He was not just a master in adventuring, he was also very intellectual. This allowed him to thrive in both environments.

Freedom to Live
After his father killed himself and Theseus became king, he was a "most wise and disinterested" king. He "declared to the people that he did not wish to rule over them; he wanted a people's government where all would be equal. He resigned his royal power and organized a commonwealth, building a council hall where the citizens shouuld gather and vote. The only office he kept for himself was that of Commander in Chief. Thus Athens became, of the earth's cities, the happiest and most prosperous, the only true home of liberty, the one place in the world where the people governed themselves."


Call To Adventure
He "declared that he would give him a present better than any there. He would go off and kill Medusa and bring back her head as his gift". (For king acrisius of Argos)

Supernatural Aid
A lot.
Hermes equipped Perseus with a sword that could "not be bent or broken by the Gorgon's scales" and Athena gave a polished bronze shield.
Hermes also guided him to the nymphs, who gave him three gifts: winged sandals, a magic wallet "which would always become the right size for whatever was to be carried in it" and a "cap which made the wearer invisible".

The Crossing of the First Threshold
When he "took ship as soon as he left the King's hall".

The Belly of the Whale
When he "must have known despair" before Hermes and Athena "came to his help".

The Road of Trials
The killing of Medusa
Rescuing Andromeda from sea serpent

The Ultimate Boon
Medusa's head

The Crossing of the Return Threshold
Comes back to the island of Seriphos to find the fisherman Dictys' wife "long since dead", and as revenge, used Medusa's head to turn the King and his "servile courtiers" to stone.

Freedom to Live
Lived happily ever after with Andromeda, his wife.

The Quest of the Golden Fleece

Call To Adventure
When Jason attempts to claim the kingdom from his cousin and usurper Pelias, who grants it in exchange for the Golden Fleece

Refusal of the Call
None, the thought of adventure was extremely appealing to Jason

Supernatural Aid
Help in the form of advice, weapons, amulets
Hera convinced Aphrodite to have her son Cupid shoot an arrow into Medea, making her fall madly in love with Jason and betray her father and murder her brother amongst other horrible acts in order to assist Jason.
Examples: Provided ointment of invincibility for the bulls, called up hounds of Hades to kill the man of bronze at Crete, provided the magic stone to kill the dragon-teeth men, got Pelias' daughters to "cut him to bits"

The Crossing of the First Threshold
When they got on the ship

The Belly of the Whale
King Aetes giving them the trials:

  1. Yoke 2 bulls whose breath was flaming fire
  2. Plow a filed by casting the teeth of a dragon onto the furrows like a seed-corn which would spring up at once into a crop of armed men. They must be cut down as they advanced to the attack - a fearful harvesting.

The Road of Trials
The trials

Woman as a Temptress
Marrying the daughter of the King of Corinth - "thought of ambition only, never of love or gratitude".

The Ultimate Boon
He got the Golden Fleece

The Magic Flight
Returned to Greece without much difficulty thanks to Medea

The Crossing of the Return Threshold
Returned to Greece but "Pelias had forced Jason's father to kill himself and his mother had died of grief".

Freedom to Live
Used his freedom for evil by leaving Medea




  1. Who is the hero? Why?
  2. What other character archetypes are present in the story?
  3. What parts of the hero's journey can you identify?
  4. What is the ultimate boon?

Captain: Picard
Alien Captain: Dathon
1st Officer: Riker
Security: Worf
Engineer: Geord
Counsellor: Troi
Android: Data

Children of Tarr



Tragic Hero

Tragedy - Flipside of comedy, negative aspects of life
Comedy - Celebration of life and love


Everyman Hero


Trickster Hero


Character Archetypes

Protagonist (Hero)
Antagonist (rival, opposition, competitor, enemy) (doesnt have to be bad guy)
Mentor (Teach & Train hero test and challenge hero, does not spoonfeed hero)
Allies (Companions who help hero foil or contrast to hero)
Shadow: reverse of hero. Hero's dark side, repressed, secretive, unrealised or forgotten aspects (is a character)
Trickster (Represents mischief, desire for change, hindrance or help, shifting allegiance)
Shapeshifter (Can change his function in the story) (eg Harvey Dent)
Threshold Guardian


Read Astonishing X-Men, Grant Morrison
Reread Sandman - Brief Lives


Traditional/Classical hero

  1. Noble birth or demi god
  2. Strong sense of justice
  3. Brave, strong, charismatic, intelligent
  4. Good leader
  5. Skilled in battle

Tragic hero

  1. Shares some qualities as traditional hero
  2. Tragic flaw that leads to downfall and death, unable to overcome tragic flaw
  3. Internal or external struggle
  4. Hubris: extreme pride or overconfidence

Hero myth deals with transformation of the hero's consciousness. The whole quest or journey is to test the protagonist to see if he is ready to be a hero

Internal life
- Mind of a hero
- Personality
- Motivation
- Strength of Character
- Ability to deal with adversity
- Ability to adopt and change
- Has hero learn and mature

Ultimate Boon - Treasure, Gift, Elixir
The hero's goal in the quest worlld

Refusal of Return

- Doesn't want to return
Magic Flight
- Smooth journey home if hero has won boon honorably
- Hero is charged to face more obstacles trying to return home if he has tricked or stolen the boon
Rescue from Without
- Without means someone from hero's home world has to come in and do a rescue mission

The above 3 are different ways back to crossing the return threshold

Crossing the Return Threshold
"The returning hero, to complete his adventure, must survive the impact of the world."
Final test for hero. The hero is a changed person. World may not understand or accept him. While he was away, his world has moved on without him.

Freedom to live. What will the hero do in his life with his new abilities and experience?


Feedback for Presentation Report

Norse Mythology

Reasons for war
Berserker rage
The gods and their affiliations with war
Explores the human condition
Constant part of human nature
(make mayan ball game more concise)

Can just add it in

Explain continuous iteration (with variation)
Include the aspect of adding variation

emphasize exploiting of the system
getting around the rules of the system
egyptians still see the system as very serious
(why I wanted to find out more about it)

Good job of expressing personal interest and linking it

Definitions for answering questions are clear
Intro is fine


  1. Specific areas (more than one) that interests you
  2. How the myths are relevant to you
  3. ______
  4. Conclusion


Quiz week 12

  1. Steps of hero's journey
  2. Ancient Greek Hero Myths
    1. Hercules
    2. Perseus
    3. Theseus
  3. Qualities of a hero

No laptops/e-readers
No phones


Bullfinch's mythology
sacred texts (such as prose edda, etc)


Definition of a hero (Joseph Campbell)

- "Someone who has given his or her life to something bigger than oneself."
- "Found or done something beyond normal range of human experience."
- Sacrifice for others. Serve others.
- Quest to find yourself/your nature/your role in life

Hero's Journey

- Archetype of hero myths from different civilizations/monomyth
- Journey will test main character to see if he can be a hero.
- Physical, emotional and psychological transformation.
- Quest: search, journey, crusade, odyssey, mission

Separation/Departure from known world

  1. Call to Adventure
Starts in hero's home world, his normality
Herald: Calls hero to adventure to a world that is different from his world.

  1. Refusal of Call (Generally, most people accept)
If hero refuses, he becomes trapped and inactive
Example: Daphne and Apollo (Neither are heroes, but it is an example of this pattern of behaviour)
Hero will be pullled into questwhere he agrees to or not.

  1. Supernatural Aid
Mentor: Guide, teacher, older man or woman

Man - God, wizard, wisened man
Woman - Goddess, crone

Help in the form of advice, weapons, amulets
Hero can call on mentor for help later in quest. Hero has to trust that help will come.

  1. Crossing the first threshold (boundary)

Boundary between homeworld and world of quest
Threhold Guardian: Menacing and dangerous to test hero

  1. Belly of the Whale (Job in the Bible)
Hero's 1st enncounter in new world
1st Obstacle "Passage into the realm of night"
swalled into unknown, appears to have died.
Indication of trials and obstacles to come

Initiation/Road of Trials

  1. Road of Trials
Tests, Ordeals, Obstacles
Hero gets help from mentor's gifts or helpers sent by mentor
Help from divine
Help can come from people in new world
Trials may be set by divine to test hero, or by antagonists

The following (2-4) are symbolic
and can be positive or negative experiences

  1. Meeting with Goddess
    1. Goddess represents the mother
    2. "the hero releases his infantile, inappropriate sentimentalities and resentments" aka hero starts to mature and leave his childishness behind
    3. childishness is inability to handle impulses (eg fear) (giving into emotion)
    4. havent become adult yet
  2. Woman as Temptress
    1. Woman represents physical or material temptation
    2. In a more positive way, the woman can represent life
  3. Atonenemnt with Father
    1. Father represents how the hero becomes an adult
    2. Father figure can be positive or negative
    3. Will test the hero to his limits
    4. A later stage of growing up than meeting with goddess

3 Stages don't occur in every myth, can be obstacles or help or opportunities for hero to grow

  1. Apotheosis
Elevation to divine status

  1. Ultimate Boon
All he needs to get gift 'treasure' or elixir


Different ways to reach return threshold:
- Refusal of return
- Magic Flight
- Rescue from without

Crossing Return Threshold

The new normal:
- Master of 2 Worlds
- Freedom to Live

- General statement

Indication of the essay's focus
- Address question
- Define terms
General definition
- Thesis statement
Specific detail about hypotheses in body of essay, this gives overview of what your essay will contain


Main Themes

Human nature
- Sacrifice
- Heroism/Bravery
- Relations between Gods and mortals
- Compassion
- Violence
Role of prophecy and fate


When you choose hypothesis and evidence you have to do the following:
What are important events?
Who are important characters?
Body: Define in more detail after you state hypothesis


Explain how evidence supports hypopthesis and answer question


"They continue to move us because they deal in unchanging human verities - love and hatred, courage, loyalty and the terrible power of the irrational. Modern psychologists see them as archetypes because they seem to draw on the deep past of the human psyche." - Michael Wood, Historian, Broadcaster, BBC


Websites to avoid - Wikipedia, Wikia, Shmoop, Sparknotes

Length of video/visuals - 1-1.5 min


Don't write or edit at the same time. Leave your draft for a few hours to one day before editing.

  1. Active Voice
Students made a lot of noise

  1. Passive voice
Noise is made by students in the room.

Use 1st.

Writing Process

Plan your main points before you write

Make sure you answer the question

Make adjustments to their statements throughout the writing process, especially when you change and adjust main points and hypotheses

1st Draft Edit

1st Introduction complete?
Thesis statement: Does this give an accurate idea of the hypotheses in the essay's body?
Did you follow format in body of essay?
How have you linked the 1st hypothesis to the next one?
Why have you sequenced the hypotheses in this way?
Check loopholes, contradictions...
Do you need more hypotheses?

2nd Draft

Fix the problems you have identified
Find areas that need more detail? Less detail? What points are not needed?
What sections have to be reorganized or re-sequenced?
Are you answering the question?

2nd Edit

Is thesis statement working? What changes and improvements are needed?
Are you answering the question?
Check the same areas as in the 1st edit.
Use of the language: Are the ideas clear? (Sentence construction, sentence lengths and choice of words.)




How do the Trojan War and the fall of Troy show the main themes in Greek myths?

- Write the introduction in full
- Write 2 main points in full
- Bring the draft to class, hard copy





Heroes and their adventures


Essay Organization

Introduction (will be longer than 1 paragraph)

  1. General statement about topic
  2. Address the question asked and set scope of material to be covered
  3. Define important terms in question
  4. Thesis statement (1-3 sentences to state focus of essay)
Put the main points in a logical sequence, so that the 1st point leads to the next, and so on.
Format for each main point/Hypothesis
  1. State hypothesistt
  2. Cite relevant and complete evidence to back up hypothesis. Can cite more than 1 piece of evidence.
  3. Explain how the evidence backs up hypothesis and thesis statement, and answers question.
  4. Link the hypothesis to the next hypothesis OR when you identify the next hypothesis, link it to the previous one.

Repeat this format for all your hypotheses/main points.
- No new information.
- Don't repeat introduction
- Show how all your hypotheses substantiate thesis statement or answer the question.
1st Person - I, We
2nd Person - You
3rd Person - He, She

Identify the MAIN THEMES


Writers of Greek Myth:
- Homer (Illiad (Trojan War), Odyssey (Journey back home AFTER Trojan War))
- Ovid (Metamorphoses)
- Sophocles


What is a Myth? My understanding:

Myths exemplify the difference between man and animal. Man is much more conscious about their existence and tries to find meaning in it. Imagination plays a vital role, and while at first, it may not seem to contribute to our survival and is even illogical, it allows us to achieve far more than any animal can by dreaming of the seemingly impossible, and thus, let us live much more fervently, through our accomplishments and achievements.


5 important things about myth

  1. Rooted in exerpeice of death and fear of extinction
  2. Rituals (usually involving sacrifice) were inseparable from myth
  3. The most powerful myths were about extremities
  4. Myths are not stories told for their own sake, they tell us how to behave
  5. Myths speak of a plane that exist alongside our own world, and that in some sense supports it


Functions of myth

A myth is a story not told for its own sake (Karen Armstrong)

Cope with life
Live Life


Pre-Mordern Myth What we believe today
Divine beings lived in the same world as humans Divine beings exist in a separate realm


Personification - Giving human qualities to inanimate objects/things (emotions counted, see Inside Out)


"A myth was an event which, in some sense, ened once, but which also happened all the time. Because of our strictly chronological view of history, we have no word for such an occurrence, but mythology is an art form that points beyond history to what is timeless in human existence, helping us to get beyond the chatoic flux of random events and glimpse the core of reality."

What this means is that humans are similar, and minds work in the same way - myths, at least at their core fundamental forms, occur multiple times throughout the past, present and future. See: Carl Jung's theory of the collective unconsciousness.


Stuff about to be covered (13/5/2016):


Logos - Logical mode of thought
Used to: solve problems, experiment, learn, thinking skills
Plan for future, foresight

Mythos (If Logos was the brain, Mythos would be the heart)
Complimentary mode of thought to the logos
Help with difficult human predicament

- Cope with death
- Cope with disasters
Help humans to understand the divine beings
Gives us insight into human nature and the human condition (what it meant to be human)
Sense of curiosity and wonder


  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehension
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Evaluation
  6. Synthesis

1-3: Lower level thinking skills
4-5: Higher level thinking skills
6: Creating something new


Maslow's Hierachy of needs


"A myth can't tell a man how to kill his prey or organize an expedition. it caan help him deal with complex emotions about killing animals, answer questions about the value of human life mitigate pain and sorrow and make peace with the tragedy of human life.


Apollo (Hector's protector)




Backlinks: index:ENG150 Notes